Roman Theatre, Alexandriaby Daniel Mayer (CC BY-SA). The stadium is the oldest stadium in Egypt, being built in 1929. Special Offer. | Founded in 331 BC by 25-year-old Alexander the Great, Alexandria (Al Iskendariyya) is the stuff of legend. None, however, are as famous as the building that stood on the eastern point of Pharos island. At one time it was the general belief that the mantle of Athens had fallen upon the shoulders of Alexandria. This was used by, The Navalia (Docks), lying west of the Timonium, along the seafront as far as the mole, Behind the Emporium rose the Great Caesareum, by which stood the two great. Other institutions of higher education in Alexandria include Alexandria Institute of Technology (AIT) and Pharos University in Alexandria. The latter was recently rediscovered under water. [9] It was at one time the largest city in the ancient world before being eventually overtaken by Rome. The Mausolea of Alexander (Soma) and the Ptolemies in one ring-fence, near the point of intersection of the two main streets. The main sport that interests Alexandrians is football, as is the case in the rest of Egypt and Africa. The city grew to become the largest in the known world at the time, attracting scholars, scientists, philosophers, mathematicians, artists, and historians. While Egyptian law requires all cabs to carry meters, these generally do not work and fares must be negotiated with the driver on either departure or arrival. Last modified May 02, 2018. The commuter line's locomotives operate on diesel, as opposed to the overhead-electric tram. The Romans had cranes but they were not strong enough to lift something this heavy. Alexandria is located in the country of Egypt, on the southern coast of the Mediterranean. The Pharos lighthouse was destroyed by an earthquake in the 14th century, making it the second longest surviving ancient wonder, after the Great Pyramid of Giza. Finally, in 305 BC, Ptolemy declared himself Pharaoh as Ptolemy I Soter ("Savior") and moved his capital to Alexandria. Mark has lived in Greece and Germany and traveled through Egypt. The Pope of Alexandria was second only to the bishop of Rome, the capital of the Roman Empire until 430. The great lighthouse was steadily destroyed by earthquakes as was much of the port. It also is connected by canal with the Nile. Discover (and save!) It’s the perfect spot to enjoy a morning or afternoon exploring the gardens with a view of the palace and sea. Alexandria lost much of its former importance to the Egyptian port city of Rosetta during the 9th to 18th centuries, and only regained its former prominence with the construction of the Mahmoudiyah Canal in 1807. A few months after the foundation, Alexander left Egypt and never returned to the city during his life. Required fields are marked * Name * Email * Miriam hanna 2 years ago . It is usually frequented by the children of French expatriates and diplomats in Alexandria. No one knows how many books were held in the library at Alexandria but estimates have been made of 500,000. It remains at the site of the Serapeum, Alexandria's acropolis. Sea sports such as surfing, jet-skiing and water polo are practiced on a lower scale. - Elizabeth Cox, Religious strife increases between Christians and other faiths in, Christian Patriarch Theophilus destroys pagan temples in, The Death of the Classical World by Mangasarian, The Rise and Fall of Alexandria: Birthplace of the Modern World, The Architecture of Alexandria and Egypt 300 B.C.--A.D. Caesar arrived and, whether real or feigned, claimed outrage at the death of his former friend and ally. It also became infamous for the religious strife which resulted in the martyrdom of the philosopher Hypatia of Alexandria in 415 CE. Much of the royal and civic quarters sank beneath the harbour and the rest has been built over in modern times. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. These have been steadily excavated by Professor Jean-Yves Empereur and his team who continue to bring to light the lost golden age of Alexandria. In the northwest part of Egypt, running alongside of the Mediterranean Sea is a city called Alexandria. Estimates of the total population range from 216,000[27] to 500,000[28] making it one of the largest cities ever built before the Industrial Revolution and the largest pre-industrial city that was not an imperial capital. The names of a few other public buildings on the mainland are known, but there is little information as to their actual position. Alexandria has a borderline hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification: BWh),[29] approaching a hot semi-arid climate (BSh). Euclid taught at the university there. Hellenistic Alexandria was best known for the Lighthouse of Alexandria (Pharos), one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World; its Great Library (the largest in the ancient world); and the Necropolis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages. The historian and scholar Mangasarian writes. Discover (and save!) Growing up Jewish in Alexandria: The Story of a Sephardic Family's Exodus... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Judith McKenzie et al., The Architecture of Alexandria and Egypt, C. 300 B.C. [30] Rafah and Alexandria[31] are the wettest places in Egypt; the other wettest places are Rosetta, Baltim, Kafr el-Dawwar, and Mersa Matruh. The British won a considerable victory over the French at the Battle of Alexandria on 21 March 1801, following which they besieged the city, which fell to them on 2 September 1801. It is the main port of Egypt. It is most famous in antiquity as the site of the Pharos, the great lighthouse, considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, for the Temple of Serapis, the Serapion, which was part of the legendary library at Alexandria, as a seat of learning and, once, the largest and most prosperous city in the world. The first starts at Bolkly (Isis) and ends at San Stefano. The Kom el shoqafa Catacombs are considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages and date back to the 2nd century. The nationalization of property by Nasser, which reached its highest point in 1961, drove out nearly all the rest. The library of Alexandria was completed by Ptolemy II (285-246 BCE) who sent invitations to rulers and scholars asking them to contribute books. By the time of the Arab conquest of Egypt in 641 AD, the city had already been largely plundered and lost its significance before re-emerging in the modern era. [32] July and August are the hottest and driest months of the year, with an average daily maximum temperature of 30 °C (86 °F). He has taught history, writing, literature, and philosophy at the college level. Al-Nour Party, which is based in the city and overwhelmingly won most of the Salafi votes in the 2011–12 parliamentary election, supports the president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi.[10]. The shaft is 88 feet (27 m) high, and made out of a single piece of granite. Ibn Battuta left Alexandria with the intent of visiting him. The catacombs were long forgotten by the citizens until they were discovered by accident in 1900.[43]. Edited on 3 January 2021, at 14:06 and Christianity encouraged then declared martial law, over! 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