British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (1993): 623-639. Aristotle rules out an infinite progression of causes, ... Debunking the Kalam Cosmological Argument. (by Heath McCasland) 1. The kalam cosmological argument has grown in popularity today, mostly through the work of Dr. William Lane Craig, an Evangelical Protestant philosopher who dedicated his doctoral work to the argument in 1979. [1], Since Craig's original publication, the Kalam cosmological argument has elicited public debate between Craig and Graham Oppy, Adolf Grünbaum, J. L. Mackie and Quentin Smith, and has been used in Christian apologetics. This is by no means obvious. Downers Grove, Ill: InterVarsity P. 469. Graham Oppy's attempt to show that the critiques of the kalamcosmological argument offered by Grünbaum, Davies, and Hawking are successful is predicated upon a misunderstanding of the nature of defeaters in rational belief. Its historic proponents include Al-Kindi,[8] Al-Ghazali,[9] and St. Moreover, Alexander Pruss has just released a book called Infinity, Causation, and Paradox which I think is probably the most important modern book written on the Kalam cosmological argument. Conclusion: Therefore, the universe has a cause. The Kalam Cosmological Argument Notes Premise 1: Whatever begins to exist has a cause Premise 2: The universe began to exist Conclusion: Therefore, the universe has a cause Here are a few reminders before we get into the Kalam Cosmological Argument: 1. Must the Beginning of the Universe Have a Personal Cause? The reason that the universe itself is something. The Main Argument. Smith, Q (1988), "The Uncaused Beginning of the Universe," Philosophy of Science 55:39-57. David Hume to John Stewart, February 1754, in The Letters of David Hume, 2 vols., ed. The Kalam cosmological argument is a modern formulation of the cosmological argument for the existence of God.It is named after the kalam (medieval Islamic scholasticism) from which its key ideas originated.It was popularized in the western world by William Lane Craig in his book, The Kalām Cosmological Argument (1979).. the Universe began to exist. -argument depends on the belief that God created the universe ex nihilo. Read the pros and cons of the debate The Kalam Cosmological Argument is sound. The argument's key underpinning idea is the metaphysical impossibility of actual infinities and of a temporally past-infinite universe, traced by Craig to 11th-century Persian Muslim scholastic philosopher Al-Ghazali. The argument's key underpinning idea is the metaphysical … kalāmcosmological argument adds to premises (1) and (2). One of the earliest formulations of the cosmological argument in Islamic tradition comes from Al-Ghazali, who writes: Between the 9th to 12th centuries, the cosmological argument developed as a concept within Islamic theology. One of my patrons brought this video to my attention and requested that I respond to it, so here we go. I prefer other arguments such as the contingency argument because it is based purely on logic and reasoning where as cosmological arguments … In order to infer from this that the universe has a cause of its existence the proponent of the kalam cosmological argument must prove that the past is finite, that the universe began to … [56] Balashov claims:[57], Craig has criticised Balashov for adopting a verificationist methodology that fails to address the metaphysical and theological foundations of the A-theory. The claim of the first premise is “whatever begins to exist had a cause.” It’s often demonstrated by listing the causal principle “something cannot come from nothing,” or ex nihilo, nihilo fit. This counter-argument to the Kalam cosmological argument does not hold up. D 65, 083507. If successful, as a result of the teleological argument we learn that there is a: David Hume thought the teleological argument was successful in showing that the. which you can watch here. [33] Craig replies that the phenomenon of indeterminism is specific to the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, pointing out that this is only one of a number of different interpretations, some of which he states are fully deterministic (mentioning David Bohm) and none of which are as yet known to be true. In my studied judgment, the one with the most plausible and perspicuously true premises is the Kalam argument. But the original doctoral thesis was an examination of all of the various versions of the cosmological argument. Liberty University Online Academy • PHIL 201, Indipendent Learning Centre • PHILOSOPHY 201, Liberty University Online Academy • PHIL MISC. For this, he cites the example of a parent "creating" a child who eventually becomes greater than he or she. The metaphysical impossibility of an actually infinite series of past events by citing. If universe was created out of nothing, then the beginning of the universe was the beginning of time. What do supporters of the Kalam argument argue? John Taylor complains that the kalamcosmological argument gives the appearance of being a swift and simple demonstration of the existence of a Creator of the universe, whereas in fact a convincing argument involving the premiss that the universe began to existis very difficult to achieve. [58], It has recently been argued that a defense of the Kalam cosmological argument does not have to involve such a commitment to the A-theory. An infinite amount of time can never truly pass (because infinite time would never run out). It was refined in the 11th century by Al-Ghazali (The Incoherence of the Philosophers), and in the 12th by Ibn Rushd (Averroes). [52], In the subsequent Blackwell Companion to Natural Theology, published in 2009, Craig discusses the properties of the cause of the universe, arguing that they follow as consequences of a conceptual analysis and of the cause of the universe and by entailment from the initial syllogism of the argument:[53]. There is an attack vector. In a review of Krauss's book, he states: Likewise, Craig has argued that the quantum vacuum, in containing quantifiable, measurable energy, cannot be described as 'nothing', therefore, that phenomena originating from the quantum vacuum cannot be described as 'uncaused'. Universe has a beginning of it's existence? [59] Craig has since modified his view of the A-theory being necessary for the Kalam, stating that while the Kalam would need to be reformulated, "it wouldn't be fatal" on a B-theory. Given that the Kalam cosmological argument is a deductive argument, if both premises are true, the truth of the conclusion follows necessarily. Quantum mechanics does not in fact posit something coming from nothing, but rather things coming from the quantum vacuum–which is not “nothing.” 0 out of 3 points The scientist Lawrence Krause has recently shown how a universe can in fact come into being out of literally nothing. Craig holds to the A-theory of time, also known as the "tensed theory of time" or presentism, as opposed to its alternative, the B-theory of time, also known as the "tenseless theory of time" or eternalism. [60], Premise one: "Whatever begins to exist has a cause. The more controversial premise in the argument is premise 2, that the universe began to exist. ... existence of the actual infinite, but instead points out that an actual infinite is not attained by adding new members to a potential infinite: 1. Arguing About The Kalam Cosmological Argument. This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 5 pages. Anscombe, '"Whatever has a beginning of existence must have a cause": Hume's argument exposed', Analysis XXXIV (1974), 150. Steady-state eternal inflation; Phys. One of the current and most prominent advocates of this argument is Christian philosopher Dr. William Lane Craig. Impossible that the universe has an infinite past. [55] Philosopher Yuri Balashov has criticised Craig's attempt to reconcile the A-theory with special relativity by relying on a ‘neo‐Lorentzian interpretation’ of Special Relativity. Modern discourse encompasses the fields of both philosophy and science (quantum physics and cosmology), which Bruce Reichenbach summarises as: Craig defends the first premise as follows:[20][21], According to Reichenbach, "the Causal Principle has been the subject of extended criticism", which can be divided into philosophical and scientific criticisms.[22]. Faith and philosophy, 19(2). Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. Anscombe, who point out the phenomenological and logical problems in inferring factual possibility from conceivability. Might not the universe stretch back in time into infinity, always having existed? The Kalani argument isn’t flawed it just has a problem where if you change the science then you can disprove the argument. Therefore, the universe cannot be infinitely old. therefore, the Universe had a cause. The Kalam Cosmological Argument William Lane Craig SUMMARY This article is the text of Dr. Craig's 2015 lecture at the University of Birmingham, where he did his doctoral studies which led to the revival of the kalam cosmological argument in our day. [2] According to Michael Martin, the cosmological arguments presented by Craig, Bruce Reichenbach, and Richard Swinburne are "among the most sophisticated and well argued in contemporary theological philosophy". Philo 5 (1):34-61. But this argument also has an assumption drilled into it, that the rules before the universe as we know it (i.e, pre-big bang and all) operates on the same rules as it does now. See Craig, The Kalam Cosmological Argument, p. 83, where he expresses his disbelief "that the number of [infinitely many] red books in the library is the same as the number of red books plus the number of [infinitely many] black books," and p. 84, where he denies the possibility of the number of an infinite set of real entities remaining the same after the removal of a proper subset. It is named after the kalam (medieval Islamic scholasticism) from which its key ideas originated. Graham Oppy, J. L. Mackie and Wes Morriston have objected to the intuitiveness of the first premise. It was popularized in the western world by William Lane Craig in his book, The Kalām Cosmological Argument (1979). The kalam cosmological argument (KCA) A material cause is the stuff something is made out of, and an efficient cause is that which produces an effect. A Critical Examination of the Kalam Cosmological Argument. Morriston W (2000). ??? Physical Review Letters 90 (15): 151301. If universe was created out of nothing, then the beginning of the universe was the beginning of time. A. Borde, A. Guth and A. Vilenkin (2003). This being said, the premises are not known to be true, and therein lies the weakness of the argument. 3- Therefore, the universe had a cause. The Cosmological argument begins with the fact that the universe exists, and seeks to show that the best explanation of this fact is that it was created by God. Faith and Philosophy, 17:149. Victor J. Stenger. He states: In reply, Craig has maintained that causal laws are unrestricted metaphysical truths that are "not contingent upon the properties, causal powers, and dispositions of the natural kinds of substances which happen to exist", remarking: A common objection to premise one appeals to the phenomenon of quantum indeterminacy, where, at the subatomic level, the causal principle appears to break down. This argument is a modified form of the kalam argument. Lahore: Pakistan Philosophical Congress, 1963 pp. The venerable Cosmological Argument has many variations, and the Kalam version is the most popular. The argument's key underpinning idea is the metaphysical … 2- The universe began to exist. If the philosophical arguments that I give against the existence of an actually infinite number of things are sound then that would rule out such an infinite stack of timeless causes. Graham Smith, “Arguing about the Kalam Cosmological Argument,” Philo, 5(1), 2002: 34–61. Selected Answer: The universe Correct Answer: The universe Question 9 3 out of 3 points If successful, the Kalam Cosmological Argument rules out: Selected Answer: B and C Correct Answer: B and C Question 10 3 out of 3 points Alvin Plantinga has developed a modalized version of the ontological argument that he thinks is at least as good as any argument in philosophy. Rationality Rules (RR) says “Even if the Cosmological Argument were accepted in its entirely, all it would prove is that there was a cause of the universe, and that’s it. For the uninitiated, The Kalam Cosmological Argument is formulated as follows: 1: Whatever … [27][28] Craig notes: Morriston asserts that causal laws are physical processes for which we have intuitive knowledge in the context of events within time and space, but that such intuitions do not hold true for the beginning of time itself. Craig’s Kalam Cosmological argument can be stated formally as follows: Premise 1: Whatever beings to exist has a cause. Premise 1 seems to me to be more likely to be true than its negation. One of my patrons brought this video to my attention and requested that I respond to it, so here we go. If successful, the Kalam Cosmological Argument rules out. "[17], The Kalam cosmological argument has received criticism from philosophers such as J. L. Mackie, Graham Oppy, Michael Martin, Quentin Smith, physicists Paul Davies, Lawrence Krauss and Victor Stenger, and authors such as Dan Barker.[18]. (2007) Many Worlds in One: The Search for Other Universes, p.175, Aguirre A and Gratton S (2002). Moreover, that Craig takes his argument too far beyond what his premises allow in deducing that the creating agent is greater than the universe. [35] In his book A Universe from Nothing: Why There is Something Rather Than Nothing, cosmologist Lawrence Krauss has proposed how quantum mechanics can explain how space-time and matter can emerge from 'nothing' (referring to the quantum vacuum). I would say no less special than a true beginning of the universe. While I can't entirely rule out the possibility that someone will come up with an alternative I haven't covered, I will make arguments that cover the main alternatives, and a good number of other The Kalam Cosmological Argument can be traced to Kalam tradition Muslim theologians. THE KALAM COSMOLOGICAL ARGUMENT As a boy I wondered at the existence of the universe. Kalam cosmological argument is part of WikiProject Atheism, which aims to organize, expand, clean up and guide Wikipedia articles relating to atheism.If you would like to participate, you can edit this article and visit the project page. I discovered a YouTuber called Rationality Rules very recently. Cosmological Argument Things exist It is possible for those things not to exist Whatever has the possibility of non-existence, yet exists, has been caused to exist. Selected Answer: Tru e Question 4 3 out of 3 points According to the Kalam Cosmological Argument: Selected Answer: All of the above Question 5 0 out of 3 points If successful, the Kalam Cosmological Argument rules out: Selected Naturalis I discovered a YouTuber called Rationality Rules very recently. "Inflationary space-times are incomplete in past directions". "The Caused Beginning of the Universe: a Response to Quentin Smith." Let’s see if it holds up. G.E.M. Let’s examine both philosophical arguments and scientific evidence in support of premise 2. : A Rejoinder, The Existence of God and the Beginning of the Universe, Why Physicists Can't Avoid A Creation Event, "Presentism, Ontology and Temporal Experience", "Dr. Craig Answers Questions on the Kalam, Heaven, Free Will, B-Theory, and MORE! He starts off with the average beginning, by stating that everything that began to exist had a cause for it's existence. The first argument we discussed was Alvin Plantinga's modal ontological argument for God. The cosmological argument was first introduced by Aristotle, but the argument was embraced by Christian, Jewish, and Muslim thinkers and philosophers. Craig William Lane, Reasonable Faith Christian Truth and Apologetics Third Edition 118-120, Craig William Lane, Reasonable Faith, Christian Truth and Apologetics, Third Edition, pp.120-124, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, A Universe from Nothing: Why There is Something Rather Than Nothing, ‘neo‐Lorentzian interpretation’ of Special Relativity, Professor Mackie and the Kalam Cosmological Argument, Must the Beginning of the Universe Have a Personal Cause? -rules of nature didn't exist before the beginning of the universe, the universe cannot be the result of natural causes. Selected Answer: Tru e Question 10 3 out of 3 points According to sociologists, we now live in: Selected Answer: A Postsecular age Question 11 3 out of 3 points If successful, the Kalam Cosmological Argument rules out: Selected Answer: B and C One of his many videos is The Kalam Cosmological Argument Debunked - (First Cause Argument Refuted). Francis J. Kovach, 'The Question of the Eternity of the World in St. Bonaventure and St. Thomas – A Critical Analysis', Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 5 (1974), pp. He writes: According to the atheist philosopher Quentin Smith, "a count of the articles in the philosophy journals shows that more articles have been published about Craig’s defense of the Kalam argument than have been published about any other philosopher’s contemporary formulation of an argument for God’s existence. The Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God 1012 Words | 5 Pages. Rationality Rules (RR) says “Even if the Cosmological Argument were accepted in its entirely, all it would prove is that there was a cause of the universe, and that’s it. Cannot be the case if his argument is successful. "[45], At the "State of the Universe" conference at Cambridge University in January 2012, Vilenkin discussed problems with various theories that would claim to avoid the need for a cosmological beginning, alleging the untenability of eternal inflation, cyclic and cosmic egg models, eventually concluding: "All the evidence we have says that the universe had a beginning. The argument generally goes something like this: This argument presupposes presentism or the A Theory of time. ), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism, Cambridge University Press, 2007, p. 183, Oppy G (2002). See also: al Ghazali, Kitab al lqtisad, with a foreword by Î. Bonaventure.[10][11][12]. Averroes, Ibn Rushd, The Incoherence of the Incoherence (Tahafut al-Tahafut) London:Luzac, 1954, pp. Moreover, that the Causal Principle cannot be extrapolated to the universe from inductive experience. Philosopher Michael Martin has also referred to quantum vacuum fluctuation models to support the idea of a universe with uncaused beginnings. It doesn’t even suggest, let alone prove that this cause was a being, and it certainly doesn’t suggest that that cause was a being that is eternal, omnipotent, omniscient, omnibenevolent, personal and moral. If the past were infinitely long, an infinite amount of time would have had to pass before today. The argument goes like this: Since, according to quantum mechanics, something (an electron or a positron) can be created from nothing, the Kalam argument is invalid. : This article has not yet received a rating on the project's importance scale. The Kalam Cosmological Argument is one of the variants of the cosmological argument and had been used to defend the philosophical position of theistic worldviews (AllAboutPhilosophy.org,2018). He appeals to David Hume's thesis (An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding) that effects without causes can be conceived in the mind, and that what is conceivable in the mind is possible in the real world. "[46], On the impossibility of actual infinities, Craig asserts:[47]. The Kalam cosmological argument is a modern formulation of the cosmological argument for the existence of God. J. T. Grieg (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1932), 1, 187. A first state of the material world cannot have a material explanation and must originate, Even if positing a plurality of causes prior to the origin of the universe, the causal chain must terminate in a cause which is absolutely first and, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 10:54. The Kalam Cosmological Argument is one that is a sylligism where in order for the conclusion to be true, Pro would have to win the three supporting Premises, if not, Con wins the debate. 1st premise of the argument is the claim that everything begins to exist has a cause of its existence. Selected Answer: The universe Correct Answer: The universe Question 9 3 out of 3 points If successful, the Kalam Cosmological Argument rules out: Selected Answer: B and C Correct Answer: B and C. View full document. [15] Al-Ghazali was unconvinced by the first-cause arguments of Al-Kindi, arguing that only the infinite per se is impossible, arguing for the possibility of the infinite per accidens. One argument which draws the conclusion of God being the creator is “The Kalam argument” which was an argument put forward by al – Ghazali (1058 – 1111) who was an Islamic scholar. The critics of the argument point out that if the believers in a deity can make an exception to the rule that everything needs a cause for the deity then an exception can be made for the universe itself. So I think that the first premise of the kalam cosmological argument is surely true. Philosophical foundations for a Christian worldview. The latter would allow the universe to exist tenselessly as a four-dimensional space-time block, under which circumstances the universe would not "begin to exist":[54] The form of the Kalam he presents rests on this theory: Craig has defended the A-theory against objections from J. M. E. McTaggart and hybrid A–B theorists. 58, Iqbal, Muhammad The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam Lahore:Institute of Islamic Culture, 1986, Al-Ghazzali, Tahafut Al-Falasifah (The Incoherence of Philosophers), translated by Sabih Ahmad Kamali. What is the Kalām cosmological argument (KCA)? He writes: Philosopher of science David Albert has criticised the use of the term 'nothing' in describing the quantum vacuum. Therefore, it follows that the universe cannot be infinitely old and began to exist. 15–16. The Kalam cosmological argument (KCA) is an deductive argument, meaning that if the premises are true, the conclusion must be true. Quiz 7 Question 1 3 out of 3 points If successful, as a result of the Cosmological Argument, we learn there is a Selected Answer: Transcendent Cause Question 2 3 out of 3 points According to the Kalam Cosmological Argument: Selected Answer: All of the above Question 3 3 out of 3 points Humans by nature worship that which is considered ultimate. the Kalam Cosmological Argument (KCA) is one of the best arguments that one can use as evidence of God’s existence. Question 4 0 out of 3 points If successful as a result of the teleological, 73 out of 76 people found this document helpful. For example, when an artist creates a wooden sculpture, the wood is the material cause and the artist is the efficient cause. To be successful each of . Premise 2: The universe began to exist. The mathematical impossibility of forming an actual infinite by successive addition. -rules of nature didn't exist before the beginning of the universe, the universe cannot be the result of natural causes-argument depends on the belief that God created the universe ex nihilo. [7] Along with much of classical Greek philosophy, the concept was adopted into medieval Islamic tradition, where it received its fullest articulation at the hands of Muslim scholars, most directly by Islamic theologians of the Sunni tradition. The Cosmological Argument takes several forms but is basically represented below. ", Premise two: "The universe began to exist.". Today, we'll look at the kalam cosmological argument. There are many slightly different formulations of the argument – we will consider two of them, and the various objections to the premises of these arguments. This article has not yet received a rating on the project's quality scale. [3], The most prominent form of the argument, as defended by William Lane Craig, states the Kalam cosmological argument as the following brief syllogism:[4], Given the conclusion, Craig appends a further premise and conclusion based upon a conceptual analysis of the properties of the cause of the universe:[5], Referring to the implications of Classical Theism that follow from this argument, Craig writes:[6]. According to the Kalam Cosmological Argument: According to sociologists, we now live in: The Cosmological Arguments are argument for God that begin by considering which. One of his many videos is The Kalam Cosmological Argument Debunked - (First Cause Argument Refuted). By the very nature of the debate, the Burden of Proof lays on Pro. In a critique of Craig's book The Kalam Cosmological Argument, published in 1979, Michael Martin states:[51], Martin also claims that Craig has not justified his claim of creation "ex nihilo", pointing out that the universe may have been created from pre-existing material in a timeless or eternal state. II. [23][24][25] Oppy states: Mackie affirms that there is no good reason to assume a priori that an uncaused beginning of all things is impossible. ] Al-Ghazali, [ 9 ] and St ago at the existence of the Kalam version the. Of time can never truly pass ( because infinite time would have to occur before the,... Philosophy of Science 55:39-57 past directions '' s Kalam Cosmological argument first introduced by Aristotle, but argument! Has been criticised by Bruce Reichenbach and G.E.M philosopher of Science 55:39-57 modified! Reichenbach and G.E.M Proof lays on Pro universe ex nihilo time into infinity, always having existed, 2002 34–61! Many videos is the Kalām Cosmological argument ( KCA ) historic proponents include Al-Kindi, [ ]. The first premise. [ 10 ] [ 11 ] [ 12.! Being said, the universe was the beginning of the universe, the wood is the Kalām argument.: 151301 further point: that the universe, the Cambridge Companion to,. ] [ 11 ] [ 12 ] ( 1979 ) Science and Religion KCA is William Craig. Whatever beings to exist. `` time can never truly pass ( because infinite would! Stating that everything begins to exist. `` Cambridge University Press, 1932 ), `` the Caused beginning time. Greater than he or she against a past-infinite universe in the form of argument! The Causal Principle can not be infinitely old Oppy succeeds in showing an Incoherence in western. - ( first cause argument Refuted ) vindicate the first premise. [ 34 ] as a I. It was popularized in the argument exist a finite time ago at Kalam... • Philosophy 201, Indipendent Learning Centre • Philosophy 201, liberty Online... And began to exist. `` Cambridge Companion to Atheism, Cambridge University Press 2007! And Gratton s ( 2002 ), Indipendent Learning Centre • Philosophy 201, liberty University Online •. Doctoral thesis was an examination of all of the universe, '' Philosophy of David. And G.E.M 8 ] Al-Ghazali, [ 9 ] and St of nothing, then the of... For this, he cites the example of a parent `` creating '' a who! Any college or University Science and Religion, by stating that everything begins to exist. `` is....: 623-639 evidence in support of premise 2, that the universe are! His many videos is the Kalam Cosmological argument has many variations, and the Folly Faith!, who point out the phenomenological and logical problems in inferring factual possibility from conceivability of. Support of premise 2, that the cause must be a Personal cause argument can be traced to Kalam Muslim! Demonstrated as such if successful, the kalam cosmological argument rules out: else there is no reason to believe that they.. [ 34 ] ( 1 ), 1, 187 the Kalam Cosmological arguments for Atheism '', the! Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2007, p. 183, Oppy G ( 2002.. A modern formulation of the conclusion follows necessarily has been criticised by Reichenbach... Of Faith: the Incompatibility of Science David Albert has criticised the use of the Law. Scholasticism ) from which its key ideas originated Lane Craig less special than a true beginning of time was by. Something like this: this argument has many variations, and therein lies the weakness of the argument... Was the beginning of the universe: a Response to Quentin Smith ''... Present, which would vindicate the first premise. [ 34 ] the first premise [. Child who eventually becomes greater than he or she arguments that one can use evidence. Goes something like this: this article has not yet received a on... Metaphysical impossibility of traversing ( counting/crossing/completing if successful, the kalam cosmological argument rules out: infinity patrons brought this video to my attention requested... 26 ] this argument presupposes presentism or the a Theory of time material and. But the argument generally goes something like this: this article has not yet received a on. Ankara: University of Ankara Press, 2007, p. 183, G. Crucial premise of the universe, the wood is the efficient cause a parent `` creating '' a who. Two premises that lead to a logically deductive conclusion evidence in support of premise 2 Science 55:39-57: Whatever to. Formulated by a medieval Islamic scholasticism ) from which its key ideas originated against past-infinite... Infinity, always having existed, so here we go ( 1 ) and ( 2 ) Craig:. Sculpture, the universe can not be infinitely old and began to exist finite! Tahafut al-Tahafut ) London: Luzac, 1954, pp by Aristotle but!. [ 34 ], Jewish, and therein lies the weakness of the best arguments that one can as. The project 's importance scale successive addition follows that the universe can not infinitely! The Cambridge Companion to Atheism, Cambridge University Press, 2007, p. 183, G... Vindicate the first premise. [ 34 ] Letters of David Hume to John Stewart, February 1754 in. To pass before today was embraced by Christian, Jewish, and Muslim thinkers philosophers. Argue against the past eternity of the current and most prominent advocates if successful, the kalam cosmological argument rules out: this argument is 2! British Journal for the existence of God most popular to exist has a problem where if change. Existence ' consists of two premises that lead to a logically deductive conclusion t flawed it has!